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ABOUT PUSHTO


Pushto is one of the national languages of Afghanistan (Dari Persian is the other). Major Pushto speaking cities in Afghanistan are Kandahar (Qandahar), Kabul. There are over 9 million speakers of Pushto in Afghanistan.


LINGUISTIC AFFILIATION (its relations to other languages)

Pushto is one of the East Iranian group of languages, which includes, for example, Ossete (North Ossetian, south Ossetian, Caucasus Soviet Socialist Republic) and Yaghnobi (Tajikistan).

East Iranian and West Iranian (which includes Persian) are major sub-groups of the Iranian group of the Indo Iranian branch of the Indo European family of languages. Indo-Iranian languages are spoken in a wide area stretching from portions of eastern Turkey and eastern Iraq to western India. The other main division of Indo- Iranian, in addition to Iranian, is the Indo-Aryan languages, a group comprised of many languages of the Indian subcontinent..

LANGUAGE VARIATION

There are two major dialects of Pashto: Western Pashto spoken in Afghanistan and in the capital, Kabul, and Eastern Pashto spoken in northeastern Pakistan. Most speakers of Pashto speak these two dialects. Two other dialects are also distinguished: Southern Pashto, spoken in Baluchistan (western Pakistan and eastern Iran) and in Kandahar, Afghanistan.

The variation in spelling of the language's name (Pashto, Pukhto, etc.) stems from the different pronunciations in the various dialects of the second consonant in the word; for example, it is a retroflex [sh] in the Kandahari dialect, and a palatal fricative in the Kabuli dialect. The major dialect divisions themselves have numerous variants. In general, however, one speaker of Pashto readily understands another. The Central and Southern dialects are more divergent. The Kandahari dialect is reflected in the spelling system, and is considered by some to be the "standard" for that reason.

ORTHOGRAPHY

Pushto has been written in a variant of the Persian script (which in turn is a variant of Arabic script) since the late sixteenth century. Certain letters were modified to account for sounds specific to Pushto. Until the spelling system was standardized in the late eighteenth century, the representation of these consonants varied greatly. The Pushto alphabet, which has more vowel sounds than either Persian or Arabic, represents the vowels more extensively than either the Persian or the Arabic alphabets.
With the adoption of Pushto as a national language of Afghanistan, some revisions of the spelling system have been made in the interest of clarity.

LINGUISTIC SKETCH

Pushto has a seven vowel system. There are retroflex consonants sounds pronounced with the tongue tip curled back--which were presumably borrowed from nearby Indo-Aryan languages. Unlike other Iranian languages, such as Persian, Pushto allows consonant clusters of two or three sounds at the beginning of a syllable.

Pushto distinguishes two grammatical genders as well as singular and plural. There are generally two nominal cases in Pushto, although the vocative case is still used with singular nouns. Case is marked both with suffixes and with changes in the vowel of the noun stem and stress. Verbs agree with their subjects in person, number, and grammatical gender as well as being marked for tense/aspect. Past tense transitive sentences are formed as ergative: in these, the object rather than the subject agrees with the verb, and weak pronoun objects rather than subjects are omitted if they are not emphatic.

Word order, which is very rigid, is subject-object-verb. As the language of an Islamic people, Pushto also contains a high number of borrowings from Arabic; among educated speakers, the Arabic plurals of borrowed nouns are frequently maintained.

HISTORY

The first written records of Pushto are believed to date from the sixteenth century and consist of an account of Shekh Mali's conquest of Swat. In the seventeenth century, Khushhal Khan Khattak, considered the national poet of Afghanistan, was writing in Pushto. In this century, there has been a rapid expansion of writing in journalism and other modern genres which has forced innovation of the language and the creation of many new words.

Traces of the history of Pushto are present in its vocabulary. While the majority of words can be traced to Pushto's roots as member of the Eastern Iranian language branch, it has also borrowed words from adjacent languages for over two thousand years. The oldest borrowed words are from Greek, and date from the Greek occupation of Bactria in third century BC. There are also a few traces of contact with Zoroastrians and Buddhists. Starting in the Islamic period, Pushto borrowed many words from Arabic and Persian. Due to its close geographic proximity to languages of the Indian sub-continent, Pushto has borrowed words from Indian languages for centuries.

Pushto has long been recognized as an important language in Afghanistan. Classical Pushto was the object of study by British soldiers and administrators in the nineteenth century and the classical grammar in use today dates from that period.

In 1936, Pushto was made the national language of Afghanistan by royal decree. Today, Dari Persian and Pushto both are official national languages.

ACADEMIC RESOURCES

Pushto is taught at very few universities in the United States and Canada. The most consistent program offered is at the Diplomatic Language Services in Arlington, Virginia


IMPORTANT FACTS

Pushto: Pushto and Dari are the two official languages of Afghanistan. Also called Pashto, Pukhto, and Afghani. Pushto became official language in 1936.
Number of Pushto Speakers: 17 million.
Pushto Speakers: Eight million Pashtuns live in Afghanistan, nine million in Pakistan, and the remainder in Iran.
Language Classification: East Iranian language.
Pushto Dialects: Three major dialects.
Pushto Alphabet: Persian script which is very close to Arabic scripture. Seven vowels.
Pushto Orthography: Order of sentences is subject-object-verb.
Pushto Language History: Language goes back to the 16th century.
Pushto Language Enriched by: Urdu and Arabic
Pushto Standardization Efforts: In late 18th century.
Unique Features of Pushto: Pushtun literature is rich and similar to Western literature.

 

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