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Health And Beauty Tips
3 Holiday Makeup Looks
Adverse food reactions
Allergic rhinitis
Anaphylactic shock adults
Anaphylaxis
Asthma
At the scene of an accident
Avoiding allergens
Babies failing to thrive
Back injuries
Bleeding
Children and young people
ColdMediDangerous Infants
Colds and flu
Disguise a Double Chin
Drinking Coffee Helps Fight Alzheimer's,
Drug allergy
Eczemas
Eye Allergies
Finding the time
Foods th8Lower Cholesterol
Grass-Fed Beef The Natural Alternative
Head Injury
Heart Attack
Heartburn
Help for Tired Eyes
Hepatitis C
How much exercise do I need
Injuries and treatment
Jaundice
Look Younger by Morning
Lung cancer cases
Maintaining  target weight
Makeup Tricks 4 Dark Skin
Match Makeup 2 Your Outfit
Moving on
Opening airway
Perfect Lipstick
Fixes CommonHair Problem
Recovery position
Risky Business for Teens
Sensible slimming
Sleep Disorders
Summer hay fever
Supporting someone with cancer
Tips to give up smoking
Treatment
Venom allergies
What's the right activity 4me
Why get fit
More Tips
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                

 

 

 

 

                                                      Health And Beauty

 

 
 

Heart Attack

As many as one in three people will be dead within 24 hours of
having a heart attack. But most people who survive the first month
will still be alive five years later. So prompt treatment is essential,
as is prevention.

What causes a heart attack?
The heart is a large muscular pump. It beats 70 times a minute to
push blood around the body. Like any busy muscle, the heart tissues
need a good supply of blood from their blood vessels, which are
called the coronary arteries.

Diseases that narrow the coronary arteries can cause a shortage of
oxygen and essential nutrients in the heart muscle.

This triggers chest pain known as angina, especially when the heart
is made to work extra hard, for example during exercise. If someone
has angina, the more severe the narrowing of the arteries, the less
they can do before they experience pain.

If the shortage is severe and prolonged, some of the heart muscle will die,
resulting in permanent damage. This is a heart attack, more technically
known as a myocardial infarction or MI.

Blocked coronary arteries
The most common underlying disease for heart attacks is atherosclerosis,
where fatty plaques build up on the lining of the coronary arteries.
This is known as coronary artery disease, and is a gradual process
that slowly limits the blood supply to the heart muscle.

How do heart attacks happen?
What usually happens in a heart attack is that one of the fatty
plaques cracks and a blood clot forms on top of it. It is this clot
that finally blocks the artery completely.

There are other, rarer causes of a heart attack, such as a dissection
or splitting of the wall of the coronary artery.

How many people are affected?
The UK has one of the worst heart attack rates in the world. It's
estimated that someone has a heart attack every two minutes in the UK.
More than 1.4 million people have angina and each year about 275,000
people have a heart attack. Of these, more than 120,000 are fatal.

Heart attacks are responsible for one in four deaths in men and
one in six deaths in women. They are more common among older people.

Risk factors
The biggest single risk factor for heart attack is smoking.
Other causes include high cholesterol, high blood pressure,
diabetes and a family history of heart disease.

There are many steps you can take to change your lifestyle and
reduce your risk.

Different types of heart attack
When someone goes into hospital with pain or other symptoms
suggesting coronary heart disease, a diagnosis of acute coronary
syndrome (ACS) is made.

The next step is to work out which part of the heart is affected,
and how badly. This is done by studying an electrocardiogram
(ECG) and other tests, in particular a blood test that measures
levels of a chemical called troponin, which is released from
damaged heart muscle cells.

There are several different types of heart attack. The area of the
heart that's affected has important implications for what sort of
complications there may be, how well the patient will recover
and the treatment they should be given.

For example, if a heart attack affects the inferior (underneath)
surface of the heart, which sits against the diaphragm, there is
a greater risk of abnormal heart rhythms, because the electrical
conducting system of the heart is disrupted.

If the heart attack affects the anterior (front wall) of the heart,
there is more likely to be damage to the left ventricle, which is
responsible for pumping blood around the body, leading to low
blood pressure and heart failure.

Sometimes a heart attack doesn't affect the full thickness of the
heart muscle and may not produce typical changes on an ECG.
This sort of heart attack may require different treatment.

Rapid treatment saves lives
About half of those who have a heart attack die within 28 days.
Most people who survive the first month will still be alive five
years later, but many are left with long-term heart problems.

One in three people dies within 24 hours. Most of these deaths
are sudden, occurring within one hour of onset of symptoms and
before reaching hospital, and are often due to dangerous heart rhythms.

Heart attacks must be recognised and treated as quickly as possible
because once a coronary artery is blocked, the heart muscle will die
within four to six hours. Rapid treatment reduces the risk of sudden
death and prevents long-term complications. Don't wait to call for help
this could make treatment less effective.

If you suspect a heart attack, get medical help immediately

Everyone's experience is different but common symptoms
include:

chest pain, usually a central, crushing pain, which may travel
into the left arm or up into the neck or jaw, and persists for
more than a few minutes

sometimes the pain doesn't fit this pattern, or is confused
with indigestion

some people having a heart attack don't have any pain

shortness of breath

nausea or vomiting

sweating

feeling light-headed or dizzy

palpitations or an abnormal heart rate

Treatment
When a heart attack is suspected, drugs such as aspirin may be given
immediately to improve blood flow through the coronary arteries.
Pain relief, oxygen and other treatments may also be given.

When a heart attack has been diagnosed, one of two methods may
be used to try to reopen the blocked artery.

Drugs that dissolve the blood clots blocking the artery have greatly
improved the treatment of heart attacks. These drugs, known as
thrombolytics or 'clot busters', can restore blood flow in about 60
per cent of cases, although sometimes the artery blocks again later on.

These drugs aren't suitable for everyone and there is a risk of bleeding.
As many as two per cent of those treated will have a dangerous
brain haemorrhage as a result. Thrombolytics must be given as
soon as possible after symptoms start and certainly within 12 hours.

The other method is an operation called percutaneous transluminal
coronary angioplasty or PCI. It involves inserting a tube into the
coronary arteries. The tube carries a deflated balloon that can be inflated
in the blocked area to push against the artery walls and open the vessel.
In general, PCI produces slightly better long-term results than thrombolytic
drugs but it must be carried out in a specialised centre.

Recovering from a heart attack
Not so long ago, a heart attack meant weeks of bed rest. Nowadays,
people may spend just a few days in hospital, but a much longer
process of rehabilitation is important to help the person recover fully,
deal with common problems such as depression and reduce the risk
of a second attack.

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